New smart materials are developing thanks to nanotechnology. Many books are on the market, but the demand for specialized analyses of particular topics still remains. This multiauthor book focuses on the application of nanotechnology to cement-based materials for engineering applications. The addition of novel smart nanofillers allows the development of multifunctional composite materials and not just with respect to higher mechanical strength, as investigated in the past. Special attention is given to types of nanoinclusions, novel techniques to mix components, and analysis of properties that can be achieved by paste, mortar, or concrete if they are added with nanofillers. Among these properties, the capability of self-sensing is very promising. Moreover, the use of phase-changing materials improves energy efficiency of nanocomposites, with important applications in the field of engineering, and new nanomodified composites have applications in energy harvesting and electromagnetic shielding. This is a great reference aimed at graduate and PhD students, researchers, and academics of materials science, engineering, and nanoscience; civil engineers; and engineers in nanotechnology to provide them with up-to-date information about recent developments and perspectives in this field, with special reference to topics that seem susceptible to major developments in the near future.