Stefano Montanari is a pharmacist by education (University of Modena) and, since 1972, has constantly been active in inventing, planning or improving devices for surgical and medical practice, particularly in the areas of cardiovascular surgery and cardiology. In 1979, he married Dr Gatti, and a mutual scientific collaboration was started in the fields of biomaterial research and nanopathology. He has invented both removable and non-removable caval filters, the polyurethane prosthetic heart valve, a pleural drainage device, electrophysiology equipment, the trans-oesophageal catheter for heart pacing and detection, a device to measure hourly urine production and a urine bag with a device to prevent bladder infection. Since 2005, Dr Montanari is a scientific consultant to the Osservatorio Militare Italiano for diseases due to depleted uranium. He has authored or co-authored numerous scientific articles and books and is a lecturer for master courses on nanopathology.