Almost all recent developments in nature and materials sciences are based on the investigation and understanding of nanoscaled properties of matter. Many methods have been developed to characterize samples on the nanoscale and have been optimized over the last years. The most outstanding advancements over many orders of magnitude have been achieved in photon-based methods for scattering, diffraction, and spectroscopy, particularly with the use of X-ray radiation. The parameter to describe the quality of an X-ray source is the brilliance. It determines the resolving power of X-ray scattering and diffraction experiments and is a measure of the number of photons traveling through a particular area with a well-defined divergence of the beam and fixed photon-energy spread. In the modern third-generation X-ray sources, synchrotron radiation sources, or X-ray lasers, the brilliance is extraordinarily high compared with earlier X-ray sources, so that the quality of X-ray data is exceptional. This fact has been recognized worldwide, and consequently, many large-scale X-ray sources are under construction or have recently become operational. In the future, synchrotron-based X-ray experiments will become more readily available for scientists to carry out research at the nanoscale.
This book presents the new developments in X-ray diffraction and scattering methods. High-resolution X-ray diffraction and scattering is a key tool for structure analysis not only in bulk materials but also at surfaces and buried interfaces from the sub-nanometre to micrometre range. Bulk and interface investigations of solid and liquid matter are discussed and illustrated with current research examples. The important characteristics of the sources, the experimental set-up and new detector developments are presented, and future exploitation of X-ray free-electron lasers for diffraction applications are considered.
About the Editors:
Bridget Murphy completed her master's at Dublin City University, Ireland, and moved to Daresbury Synchrotron Radiation Source, UK, where as a beamline scientist she specialized in X-ray scattering. She moved to the University of Kiel, Germany, to research phase transitions in layered materials, obtaining her PhD in 2004. She continued developing instrumentation for X-ray investigations of solid and liquid interfaces. Today she is a faculty member at Kiel.
Oliver Seeck graduated at the University of Kiel, Germany, where he studied the structure of thin layers and surfaces. He continued this research as a postdoc at the Advanced Photon Source, Chicago. Thereafter, he worked as scientist at Forschungszentrum Jülich, managing a diffraction beamline at DESY in Hamburg and becoming a faculty member there in 2005. He is now responsible for the diffraction beamline P08 at the third-generation synchrotron radiation source PETRA III.
“There are a few facilities scattered around the world with synchrotron radiation sources that produce incredibly intense X-rays and coherent beams with some loss in intensity. These sources make possible a wide range of investigations into the nature of matter on an atomic level. This book is an up-to-date collection of research done by well-known experts at these facilities. There are 11 chapters devoted to various research areas dealing with solids and liquids, including small angle X-ray scattering, reflectivity at liquid interfaces, X-ray diffraction at extreme conditions (low temperatures and/or high pressures) and synchrotron tomography.”~Optics and Photonics News
“This book is a splendid collection of chapters by well-known experts in the field of synchrotron X-ray diffraction. It is refreshing to see a diffraction-only version of X-ray physics because there are many more books available on X-ray spectroscopy. The chapters correspond almost exactly to a complete list of beamlines at one of our present-day facilities, so I recommend it wholeheartedly to students embarking on research at one of the world's synchrotron laboratories.”~Prof. Ian Robinson, University College London, UK
“Synchrotron sources and synchrotron X-ray scattering techniques have undergone explosive growth in the last decade. It therefore very timely to have this new collection of up-to-date reviews of the various types of X-ray scattering experiments being carried out at synchrotron facilities by experts in the field.”~Prof. Sunil K. Sinha, University of California San Diego, USA
“This book is an ideal textbook for graduate and undergraduate students in order to learn the state-of-the-art techniques from simple diffraction experiments to short-pulse free electron laser applications. I will certainly use this book for my lectures on X-ray physics.”~Prof. Metin Tolan, Technische Universitaet Dortmund, Germany