Over the past few years, nanoscale metallic and ceramic materials, also called nanomaterials, have attracted enormous interest from researchers. Nanomaterials demonstrate novel properties compared to conventional (microcrystalline) materials due to their nanoscale features. Recently, the mechanical alloying and powder metallurgy processes for the fabrication of metal-/alloy-ceramic nanocomposites with a unique microstructure were developed.
The present research aims to fabricate nanostructured hydrogen storage materials and their nanocomposites. Several factors (crystal structure, microstructure, crystallite size, purity of the produced nanomaterials, electronic structure) have shown their influence on the final properties, such as hydride stability, hydrogen storage capacity, thermodynamics and kinetics of hydrogenation–dehydrogenation processes, reversibility and hydrogen storage capacity, and solid phase/gas and solid phase/electrolyte solution systems, in addition to electrochemical properties. This book is our contribution to this innovative area of nanomaterials and nanocomposities for hydrogen storage applications. Wherever possible, we have tried to illustrate the subject by our own results.
The potential application of these research fits well into the EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation Horizon 2020, where one of the societal challenges is secure, clean, and efficient energy. Replacement of conventional technologies by hydride technologies may also contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.
Our goal is to provide comprehensive and complete knowledge about materials for energy applications to graduate students and researchers in chemistry, chemical engineering, and materials science.
About the Author:
Mieczyslaw Jurczyk is a professor of materials science and engineering, director of the Institute of Materials Science and Engineering at Poznan University of Technology (Poland), and head of the Division of Functional Nanomaterials. Prof. Jurczyk is the principal researcher in various research programs related to nanomaterials. During the past few years, his research activity has been connected with two topics: (i) advanced nanomaterials for storage of hydrogen and (ii) advanced bionanomaterials and bionanocomposites for medical applications. In the first case, electrochemical energy storage will become important with the increasing complexity of our power distribution systems. So all the research projects focused on the design, synthesis, characterization, testing, and final implementation of high-capacity adsorption systems for hydrogen. In the second case, Prof. Jurczyk is successfully searching for new bionanomaterials with advanced mechanical and biological properties. Recently, the mechanical alloying and powder metallurgy processes for the fabrication of metal-/alloy-hydroxyapatite nanocomposites with a unique microstructure were developed. Prof. Jurczyk’s studies have provided the first evidence of the enhancement of properties due to nanoscale structures in consolidated Ti- or Ni-free 316L SS-hydroxyapatite nanocomposites. While pure nickel-free stainless steel with a nanostructure has significantly better corrosion properties and microhardness compared to conventional 316L stainless steel, introducing hydroxyapatite and obtaining a nanocomposite enhances these properties even further. The present study has also demonstrated that titanium (316 SS)-bioceramic nanocomposites are a promising biomaterial for bone tissue engineering due to their appropriate microstructure, high hardness, low E modulus, better corrosion resistance, and good biocompatibility.